Expert Articles: Water Protection

The SHIP collection of expert articles is continuously developed and updated.


Review of „Numerical assessment of potential impacts of hydraulically fractured Bowland Shale on overlying aquifers”

Author: Bernd Wiese

Published: August 06, 2015

Message of the Paper: In most studies it is concluded that contaminants migrate as high as the fractures extent, therefore the hydraulic fracture height is the critical parameter to consider. The authors state that horizontal groundwater flux dilutes the contaminants, such that...[read more]

Surface and groundwater contamination associated with modern natural gas development

Author: Physicians Scientists & Engineers for Healthy Energy
PSE* published the original article in March 2014. Republished on SHIP with permission.

Published: July 10, 2014

Documentation of water contamination associated with modern natural gas development is a complex issue. The list of studies reported here [PSE science summary] should be seen as conservative and limited reporting of water contamination, as it only contains ...[read more]

Comment on ‘Hydraulic fracture height limits and fault interactions in tight oil and gas formations’

Author: Bernd Wiese

Published: July 30, 2014

Flewelling et al., 2013, propose a worst-case scenario approach to determine the maximum possible hydraulic fracture height in tight oil and gas formations. The analysis...[read more]

Chemicals in ‘fracking’ for the extraction of unconventional natural gas resources

Authors: Martin Elsner1, Carsten Vogt2, Anett Georgi2, Frank-Dieter Kopinke2, Wolfgang Calmano3, Kathrin Schreglmann1, Axel Bergmann4, Bernhard Mayer5, Franziska D.H.Wilke6.

Published: April 28, 2014

The "Chemicals in Hydrofracking for Natural Gas Extraction" technical committee is a group of experts of the German Water Chemistry Society (specialist group of GDCh, Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker e.V.). It is our aim to form an independent committee of experts that deals with current research questions regarding the environmental...[read more]

Assessment report on the impact of hydraulic fracturing on near-surface groundwater – Generic characterization and modeling

Authors: Torsten Lange, Alexander Kissinger, Martin Sauter, Rainer Helmig, Michael Heitfeld.

Published: January 07, 2014

The study presented here is part of the ExxonMobil information and dialog process on the technology of hydraulic fracturing (Ewen et al., 2012). It is the first larger German study on the quantification of possible risks of groundwater contamination caused by substances transported into the groundwater area by frack fluids...[read more]


Author: Michael Kühn

Published: December 18, 2013

Groundwater is an important part of the water cycle that is controlled and affected by numerous processes. The underground groundwater circulation systems are of a complexity that is difficult to understand due to the fact that they cannot be accessed directly. This is why .... [read more]

A short summary of “Constraints on Upward Migration of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid and Brine"

Author: Bernd Wiese

Published: December 12, 2013

This paper by Flewelling & Sharma (2013) analyzes some general geological settings and their implications for fluid migration. The analysis is based on plausibility considerations. A central consideration is that high vertical permeabilities are .... [read more]

The Importance of Wellbore Integrity for Groundwater Protection in Shale Gas Well Construction

Authors: Michael Prohaska and Gerhard Thonhauser

Published: June 22, 2012
Updated:  July 18, 2015

One of the major public concerns in shale gas development is the protection of groundwater from fluids that are flowing in a cemented steel casing from the shale gas reservoir to the surface. In the United States, more than 40,000 shale gas wells have been completed in the last two decades. Following an intensive period of learning, the US shale gas industry slowly  .... [read more]


Water management options associated with the production of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing

Authors: Kelvin B. Gregory, Radisav D. Vidic, and David A. Dzombak

Published:  March 14, 2012

The grand challenge that natural gas producers must address is how to preserve the favorable economics of shale gas production while maintaining responsible stewardship of natural resources and protecting public health. The goals of the natural gas developers and the goals of those responsible for human and environmental health protection... [read more]

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